Centralized remote backup script with SSH key authentication

Greetings,

It has been a while since we posted any useful tidbits for you , so we have decided to share one of our quick & dirty centralized backup scripts.

The script relies on ssh key based authentication, described here on this blog. It essentially parses a configuration file where each variable is separated by a comma and colon, as in the example config here :

Note the intended backup directories in the 3rd variable, separated by colon’s. Simply populate the backup-hosts.txt config file (located in the same folder as the script) with all the hosts you want to be backed up.

The script then ssh’s to the intended host, and sends a tar -czf stream (securely) over ssh, to be output into the destination of your choice. Ideally you should centralize this script on a box that has direct access to alot of disk space.

Find the script here :

You could modify this script to keep different daily backups , pruned to keep only X number of days of backups (i.e. only 7 days worth). There is alot you can do here.

If you have a handful of linux or bsd servers that you would like to backup in a centralized location, without having an individual script to maintain on each server, then perhaps you could use or modify this script to suit your needs.

I hope this helps.

Backup a live FreeBSD filesystem and remotely migrate to another server

Lately we’ve been all about live migrations / backups here at *.hosting. And why not? with the advent of such concepts as “self healing blade cloud environment” , we have made a point to testing / scripting live migration scenarios.

Following on our last post of backing up LVM volumes, we have decided to make a simple post for ‘dumping’ a live freebsd filesystem, compressing it mid-stream, and over the network (encrpyted through ssh of course) , before being saved as a file (or restored to a waiting live-cd mounted system).

By default in FreeBSD, it partitions your var, usr, root

So lets dump the root partition since its the smallest :

Lets break down the options so you can fully understand what its doing : -0 // dump level 0 = full backup
-u // update the dumpdates file after a successful dump
-a // bypass all tape length considerations; autosize
-n // notify if attention is required
-L // tell dump that it is a live filesystem for a consistent dump; it will take a snapshot

Alternatively you could dump the filesystem to a local file :

If you wanted to dump from server1 and restore on server2 :

Again , this is a straightforward command. It is typically fast (within reason). You could script this for automated dumps/snapshots of your filesystem for full restores in a disaster scenario.

Migrate FreeBSD to Xen

There seems to be a lot of tutorials with respect to how you can dump/restore FreeBSD implementations. However, none of them appear to be all encompassing what is actually required from start to finish during the entire process.

The one thing that I think is lacking in proper documentation is utilizing FreeBSD in a LiveCD scenario (LiveFS) within a network capacity (necessary for migration).

We decided to write this tutorial so that people could have one place to establish all the necessary things required for this type of migration from start to finish.

In this scenario we actually migrated a FreeBSD implementation on VMWARE to XEN HVM. In the end, there were no technical problems with FreeBSD actually running after it was migrated — it ran beautifully actually.

I should note that this was tested with FreeBSD 7.2-RELEASE disc images.

Please find the guide below :

Prepare OLD Instance

1. Boot into old operating system

2. Take note of partition slices / slice names / sizes / etc

3. Reboot with FreeBSD LiveFS disc

Prepare NEW Xen

1. Boot Xen instance with FreeBSD Disc 1 ISO

2. Partition / install boot loader exactly the same slices as the old instance. To be extra careful, give your slices a bit more disc space than the old implementation.

3. Write changes & reboot with FreeBSD LiveFS disc

Establish FreeBSD LiveFS environment

You need to establish a few things to get SSH / DUMP / RESTORE to work properly on both the ”’old”’ and ”’new”’ instances

1. Boot into FreeBSD LiveFS (Fixit > livefs)

2. Create the following folders :

3. Copy the following files :

4. Set an IP address on both old and new instances:

new :

old :

5. Start sshd :

Start transferring slices

1. To allow for transferring of partitions properly, the /tmp partition should be mounted on the new Xen instance :

2. For the first partition you wish to transfer, mount the empty slice on the new xen instance :

Sometimes you have to fsck mark the filesystem clean to mount it :

3. On the old instance :

That should dump/restore the slice from old > new.

Final things on the new Xen instance

Dont forget to boot the new instance in single user mode and modify ”’fstab”’ to reflect the new slice names (if applicable), as well as ”’rc.conf”’ for any hard coded interface names, etc. FreeBSD won’t boot if the right slice names / interface names aren’t present. Or at least cause problems.

You can mount the /etc slice while still in the LiveFS for the new FreeBSD instance.

Hopefully this was helpful! Obviously this has nothing to do with Xen, other than the fact that we were migrating the FreeBSD vmware instance to Xen.

You can do this on “real” machines, or from xen to vmware or anywhere. As long as the hardware is compatible.

ProFTPD with MySQL Authentication

Since this setup uses one FTP account to create user home directories and upload files, a compromise to this FTP user would cause the attacker to gain access to all FTP user home directories. I guess it just depends on how much you trust the DefaultRoot directive in Proftpd. I run Proftpd in its own chroot environment in addition to using DefaultRoot, so I’m used to feeling pretty safe with my Proftpd install. Anyway, here’s how I did the install/configuration

1. install proftpd-mysql from the ports with WITH_QUOTA set:

2. Add the global proftpd user & Proftpd group to your system.

I used uid & gid 5500 simply because that’s what was used at one of the sites I was referencing (listed below).

3. Create the mySQL database

( change ‘password’ to something secret! )

4. Create the mySQL tables for the users & quota

5. Add a test user to the proftpd database

(assumes /home/ftp is where you keep your ftp users. Otherwise, change the homedir location). This is certainly not a necessary step, but you should probably check to see if your configuration is working. You can delete this user later.

6. Set your proftpd configuration to use the mySQL authentication and quotas:

(NOTE: this is not a complete configuration file, it’s basically just the default config file with mySQL auth & quotas added, but note that the User and Group directives are the user & group we added in step 2. )

Shell Script to Report On Hacking Attempts

It is always a good idea , when implementing open source firewall implementations (iptables, pf, etc), to build in as much reporting and verbosity as possible.

Having verbose reports on the state of your firewall, intrusion attempts and other information is key to ensuring the health and integrity of your network.

Somewhere along the line, we wrote a script to provide daily reports on intrusion attempts to penetrate our network — this usually happens when someone exceeds certain connection thresholds.

It may not be the most informative data, but the script can be modified to provide other important statistical information. It can also be modified to be used with other firewall implementations. I’m certain it wouldn’t be hard to convert this script to utilise iptables.

Below you will find the script itself — it can be set to run daily as a cronjob perhaps. Also note that the script tries to resolve a hostname for the IP address to at least provide some quick & easy information to the security administrators when determining coordinated attacks or attacks coming from compromised systems.

Enjoy!

Creating a FreeBSD wireless access point

Access points are essentially wireless switches or hubs. Just like a switch or a hub, all clients communicate through the access point. FreeBSD allows us to easily create an access point with just very little configuration and just the right hardware

To set up a wireless access point using FreeBSD, you need to have a compatible wireless card. We are using a Prism 2-based chipset. For a complete list of cards that are supported, consult the man page for wi, or visit the Wireless Network Interface Section of the FreeBSD documentation site.

    • Configuring the kernel
  • Depending on how you wish to set up the access point will determine what options need to be added to the kernel config file. If the wireless network device is being installed on a server that is currently running as a Firewall/NAT, then we only need to compile the wireless device driver into the kernel:

    Choose the appropriate driver for your card from the list and include the wlan device, then recompile and install your kernel.

    If this the wireless network device is going to be installed on a system that does not serve as a Firewall/NAT, then we would want to include the BRIDGE option, along with the appropriate wireless device driver in the kernel config file.

    The bridging option will allow the wireless device to communicate with the wired ethernet interface. We must also add a couple of options to the /etc/sysctl.conf file in order to establish the bridge between the two interfaces:

    Be sure and replace fxp0 with whatever wired ethernet interface you are using with your FreeBSD installation. For information on bridging, consult the Bridging Section of the FreeBSD Handbook.

      Configuring the Wireless Interface

    The configuration of the wireless interface is fairly straightforward, we just need to add a few more options than if it were a wired ethernet interface. The following is an example of ifconfig options for a wireless interface:

    Of course this can all be setup in the /etc/rc.conf file so that these settings are retained every time the system boots. From this point, your access point should be up and broadcasting. There are just a couple more options to consider

      Post Configuration

    As stated earlier, if the wireless interface is installed in a server that is functioning as a Firewall/NAT, then the bridging option is unecessary. We just need to add a couple of rules to our firewall configuration files to allow traffic to be passed from the wireless interface.

    If you are using PF as your Firewall/NAT solution, simply add the following lines to your /etc/pf.conf file

    Replace wi0 with the appropriate interface name of your wireless card

    If you are using IPfilter as your Firewall/NAT solution, then simply add the following lines to your /etc/ipf.rules file

    Again, replace wi0 with the appropriate interface name of your wireless card.

      Administration

    Once the access point is configured and operational, we will want to see the clients that are associated with the access point. We can type the following command to get this information:

    Now you should have a complete functioning access point up and running. You are encouraged to read more about the wicontrol and wi commands for further information.

    Dual Monitors in FreeBSD

    To those (few) of you out there that actually use FreeBSD as a workstation (myself included) , you may have had the opportunity to utilize dual monitors.

    As a Systems Administrator who is usually working on 3-4 things simultaneously , it is crucial to be able to function with enough screen space.

    One of the headaches I’ve encountered is trying to get my Dual monitors working with my Ati/Radeon video card in FreeBSD. I’ve written a little tutorial to help those who may need help or are thinking of implementing a second monitor.

    I found out my video driver and pci configuration by executing the following commands :

    I entered the following as my xorg.conf (ATI / RADEON video driver):

    Starting KDE / Xorg initially displays two identical monitors. You need to use the “xrandr” utility to utilize the dual monitor configuration. The following script, when run after starting KDE will do this for you :

    Optimizing the FreeBSD kernel

    Often we are asked by VPS clients utilizing the FreeBSD operating system, how can they trim down the kernel in order to utilize the full memory footprint potential.

    Without getting into too much detail, here are several things that we usually “omit” from the kernel options during make buildworld / buildkernel to provide for a 60-70% kernel footprint reduction in 7.1-PRERELEASE :

    makeoptions     DEBUG=-g                # Build kernel with gdb(1) debug symbols
    options         MSDOSFS                 # MSDOS Filesystem

    # Wireless NIC cards
    device          wlan            # 802.11 support
    device          wlan_wep        # 802.11 WEP support
    device          wlan_ccmp       # 802.11 CCMP support
    device          wlan_tkip       # 802.11 TKIP support
    device          wlan_amrr       # AMRR transmit rate control algorithm
    device          wlan_scan_ap    # 802.11 AP mode scanning
    device          wlan_scan_sta   # 802.11 STA mode scanning
    device          an              # Aironet 4500/4800 802.11 wireless NICs.
    device          ath             # Atheros pci/cardbus NIC’s
    device          ath_hal         # Atheros HAL (Hardware Access Layer)
    device          ath_rate_sample # SampleRate tx rate control for ath
    device          awi             # BayStack 660 and others
    device          ral             # Ralink Technology RT2500 wireless NICs.
    device          wi              # WaveLAN/Intersil/Symbol 802.11 wireless NICs.
    #device         wl              # Older non 802.11 Wavelan wireless NIC.

    device          ural            # Ralink Technology RT2500USB wireless NICs
    device          rum             # Ralink Technology RT2501USB wireless NICs

    You can remove more ,but that should reduce your kernel size significantly. You should be able to recompile the kernel as per the FreeBSD documentation